Abschaffung Der Todesstrafe In Deutschland


German anatomist max Clara (1899–1966) described ns “Clara cell” von the bronchiolar epithelium an 1937. Die present short article investigates Clara"s relationship with national Socialism, and his use von tissue from enforcement prisoners zum research purposes, details about both von which are greatly unknown kommen sie date. Our methodology zum the current study focussed on analysis of zutat from historical archives and the publications von Clara and his co-workers.

Du schaust: Abschaffung der todesstrafe in deutschland

Clara was appointed together Chair von Anatomy at leipzig University (Leipzig, Germany) an 1935. He fan his career, punkt least an part, to nazi support. The was an active member of the nazi party (Nationalsozialistische deutsch Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP)) und engaged an university politics; this consisted of making anti-Semitic statements about other academics in appointment procedures. Nevertheless, he so supported prosecuted colleagues.

Much des Clara"s histological research an Leipzig, including his initial description of the bronchial epithelium, was based on organization taken from detainees executed in nearby dresden (Germany).

Max Clara was bei active and outspoken Nazi and his histological research exploited ns rising number von executions throughout the nazi period. Clara"s discovery ist thus linked to the nazi- system. Ns facts given an the present document invite conversation about ns eponym"s neglected history and its continued and problematic use an medical terminology.

In 1937, anatomist max Clara explained a new secretory cabinet type in the human bronchial epithelium 1; this has been known as die “Clara cell” since hinweisen least 1955 2. With ns identification des a details Clara cabinet protein (CC10, identical kommen sie CC16 or uteroglobin) 3, which may play a function as a clinical biomarker des lung condition 4, und with the characterisation des a Clara-like cell bei neuroepithelial bodies des the airway lining 5 in the 1980s, interest in the cell und its function has intensified. The term “Clara cell” has actually been in widespread international use because that time (fig. 1).

In 1935, to die annoyance des established anatomists 13*, Clara was appointed Chair of Anatomy at leipzig University, and in October 1942, assumed the prestigious position of Chair des Anatomy an Munich, i m sorry he hosted until the end of die war. Like plenty of other nazi Party members in public office, Clara was arrested von the united state army in October 1945 14*. ~ his release an October 1946, Clara could notfall find a permanent position at Munich university or elsewhere bei Germany despite countless desperate efforts 15*. His zustand within German academia ~ 1945 appears to oase been one of persona no grata (dicussed additional later). Bei 1950, the finally welcomed a professorship zum histology at the University of Istanbul, Turkey, i m sorry he maintained until 1961 16. Maximal Clara died in Munich bei 1966.

Clara und National Socialism

While Clara was undoubtedly bei accomplished histological researcher, he had virtually no experience in gross anatomy on taking nach oben his first professorship an Leipzig bei 1935. Many sources show that his striking career advancements bei 1935 and 1942 were largely due to political support within the nazi establishment, including ns SA (storm troopers) and Max außerdem Crinis, a prominent nazi physician at the Ministry of Higher education 13*, 17*, 18*, 19, 20*>. Außerdem Crinis (1889–1945) held the Chair of Neurology and Psychiatry of Charité clinical School bei Berlin indigenous 1939. He was centrally involved in SS activities and is widely related to as a vital figure bei the nazi “euthanasia” programme, bei which tens des thousands of psychiatric patients were murdered 21.

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Immediately top top arriving bei Leipzig native Italy, Clara joined die NSDAP (National Socialist German Worker"s Party; member number 3610105) 22*. His inaugural address in Leipzig, attended über representatives des all NSDAP organisations und held “not in tails, but in simple brownshirt” 23, was a political demo rather than in academic ceremony. His speech, published in a famous general clinical journal, explicitly welcomed die “National Socialist aufruhr of 1933” und urged scientists kommen sie “join die marching columns of our Führer” 10.

From 1936 kommen sie 1942, Clara proactively participated bei the Nationalsozialistischer deutscher Dozentenbund (National Socialist German League von Lecturers). That was the League"s branch head (Dozentenbundsführer) zum Leipzig University, and so Acting ar Head (kommissarischer Gaudozentenführer) of Saxony from late 1941. Kommen sie our knowledge, Clara never joined any type of other NSDAP suborganisations, together as ns SA or ns SS. The organisation Dozentenbund was founded in 1935 to represent NSDAP interests in ~ academia und to fördern the advance of national Socialist scientific research 24. While the content of Clara"s clinical publications was notfall political and did not contribute kommen sie a racist or anti-Semitic “pseudoscience”, he proactively participated bei university politics, which had providing politics biased appraisals zum scholarships, intimidating dissenting colleagues 25 und influencing meeting procedures. Zum example, bei 1937, Clara"s appraisal prevented ns appointment of gerhard Gesemann native Prague (Czechoslovakia) to die newly started position of Chair zum Slavonic Studies in Leipzig; Clara"s 16-page fachmann assessment accused Gesemann von collaboration with Jewish professors, for this reason going “against ns concept des the Nordic Race” 19, 26*.

In an additional appointment process, weil das the Chair of Otorhinolaryngology in Leipzig, Clara favoured a various candidate zu that des the neighborhood NSDAP Gauleiter (district leader). The subsequent quarrel with ns powerful und autocratic Gauleiter result in in official reprimand von Clara von the Supreme splitter linterparty Court in September 1942, a judgment mitigated yet upheld in an appeal hearing an February 1943 27*. We do not know even if it is this judgment had any consequences weil das Clara.

As Gaudozentenführer, Clara wrote an introduction zu a national academic directory von 1942, an which he stated “with proud that science has added to die great plans des the Führer” und called for scientists kommen sie submit to the reigning ideology und to be ready to secure die German claim to European leadership “intellectually as viel as by the politics of force” 11. Clara deshalb agitated for the NSDAP bei the Anatomische Gesellschaft, die society of German-speaking anatomists. In 1939, he und the outspoken national Socialist Eduard Pernkopf formed für hilfe of the four-member executive committee 28. The Viennese anatomist Pernkopf ist well-known for his anatomical atlas, which has recently been proven zu be based, at least in part, on specimens native executed nazi victims 29. Clara"s und Pernkopf"s attempts to transform die Anatomische Gesellschaft into a national Socialist organisation met with resistance and had minimal success 30, and Clara"s benennen does not appear an its member lists after die post-war re-establishment des the society an 1949. This, as much as his effective search zum a post after 1946, demonstrates that Clara"s career, dafür closely allied with ns NSDAP, saw ihm ostracised in German post-war academia.

The controversial post-war denazification process 31, 32 classified Clara as a Mitläufer (follower) in June 1947, however cleared ihm upon appeal the following year 33*. Clara had successfully suggested that his arguments with the Gauleiter had actually been in act of “active resistance” against party leaders, i m sorry had at some point led, against his wishes, to his posting to the Chair des Anatomy bei Munich in late 1942. This version des the facts is, however, unlikely. First, his remuneration package bei Munich was much more handsome 보다 that bei Leipzig 14*. Secondly, archived letter from the Ministry des Education demonstrate that Clara proactively strived for this post from weist least 1941 18*, 20*. Therefore, his posting could so be understood as bei effective promotion and his alleged “active resistance” against die Gauleiter as a energie struggle within NSDAP. But, die Denazification Tribunal did notfall refer to the mentioned sources und by the time, acquittals von such tribunals to be already really common 31.

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It should, however, also be noted that die denazification documents include extr affidavits relenten Clara"s support zum a “half-Jewish” doctoral candidate prior to 1938 und for other anatomist Titus über Lanz, who was prosecuted by the Nazis for having a Jewish wife 34*. Nevertheless, über Lanz danach joined his colleagues" efforts kommen sie prevent Clara from returning zu his post at the Anatomy Dept des Munich university 18*.